When the first edition of Cities of Opportunity was developed, we made a decision to rank cities only in their 10 indicator categories and to forego showing overall rankings to avoid the misperception of a contest. That risk seemed especially significant in 2007, when the media cast New York and London in a death match for global capital market kingship.
Among the central policy goals of the current New York City mayoral administration is accommodating rapid projected population growth while simultaneously improving the City’s overall environmental performance, addressing externalities arising from traffic congestion and providing increased access to affordable housing. In support of these goals, the City has developed a long term sustainable growth plan, PlaNYC 2030 (City of New York, 2008), is engaged in an active land use and planning program, and is spending hundreds of millions of dollars subsidizing the construction or preservation of income-restricted housing.
Potentially running counter to these related goals, however, is the longstanding requirement in the City’s zoning code that new residential construction in most neighborhoods be accompanied by a minimum number of off-street parking spaces. Such parking requirements, critics argue, could increase the cost of new housing by forcing developers to incur…
The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the United States, but several systems are in operation and more are advancing. There is a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land use and BRT system development, particularly in comparison to other fixed-guideway modes such as heavy and light rail. While recognizing that existing land uses have an important and complex influence on the development costs and benefits of fixed-guideway projects, this research focuses primarily on the impact such projects have had on existing and future land uses and economic development, as well as the policies and practices that have been used by local governments that have the potential to affect development. Finally, additional note has been taken as to whether the benefits and incentives offered along transit corridors between Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Light Rail Transit (LRT) are equitable in cities where both modes…
A livable community has affordable and appropriate housing, supportive features and services, and adequate mobility options for people, regardless of age or ability. As communities address the general shortage of affordable housing, preserving affordable housing in transit-oriented developments (TODs) is one of the challenges that communities can address to increase their livability.
TODs are compact, walkable, mixed-use communities that are developed around high-quality public transportation. Residents often prize these places for the advantages created by the proximity to transportation and other amenities. One consequence of this desirability is that it can increase land and property values, exacerbating housing affordability challenges.
As policymakers try to extend the benefits of TODs to affordable housing locations, they must ensure that those benefits are available to people of low and moderate incomes and to those with different mobility…
In this paper, I empirically test for positive network effects in transit use by applying a spatial autoregressive logit mode choice model with 1997/98 work trip data from New York City. Positive network effects exist when people prefer to use transit together with other people as a result of social spill-over. Although these network preferences should differ for each person, because of statistical restrictions in the model, I cannot assess individual network preferences. However, I will be able to derive econometrically a measure of their aggregate network preference.
There is increasing interest in analysing spatial dependencies and network effects in travel behaviour. LeSage and Polasek (2005) examine commodity . ow matrices by extending a gravity model, a tool widely used in the field of transport, to include spatial autoregression. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, Páez and Scott (2005, 2007) investigate the impact of social networks in discrete choice models.