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The Causal Influence of Neighborhood Design on Physical Activity Within the Neighborhood: Evidence from Northern California

Using data collected from Northern California in 2003, this study explored the causal relationship between neighborhood design and physical activity. The combination of three key features provided a stronger assessment of causality than previous studies to date: a focus on the connection between built environment characteristics of the neighborhood and physical activity within the neighborhood, statistical control of preferences for physical activity and neighborhood design characteristics supportive of physical activity, and quasi-longitudinal measures of neighborhood design characteristics and physical activity.