The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) are both examples of recent federal legislation requiring improvements in air quality and congestion through more efficient transportation and an integration of multiple modes. Increasing public transit ridership has emerged as a primary goal of policy makers seeking to comply with legislation such as CAAA and ISTEA. Several policies are being examined for their potential to persuade automobile drivers to use transit. This report focuses on parking strategies as a means of increasing transit patronage for the work trip. For comparison purposes, this report also briefly considers some nonparking strategies, such as road pricing, to assess their effect on single-occupancy vehicle (SOV) use and transit ridership.
TCRP Project H-4A is concerned with transit’s ridership and its share of the market. The project has examined a number of different policies that might be pursued at a local or metropolitan area level—with or without federal or state government encouragement—that have some potential for increasing transit’s market share, or at least maintaining it under otherwise unfavorable market conditions. The set of policies examined is a diverse and somewhat idiosyncratic one: it ranges from quite micro-level service adjustments made unilaterally by a transit operator, through initiatives requiring significant interagency cooperation, to strategies that would markedly affect the travel conditions of the whole metropolitan area, whether using transit or a private vehicle. The choice of policies was influenced, in part, by a wish to avoid otherwise promising options (such as parking management and pricing) that are the subject of more intensive investigation in ongoing TCRP peer studies.
This booklet describes the problems the LUTRAQ project sought to address: dispersed land-use patterns that encourage auto use and reliance on new highway capacity to relieve congestion. The second section reviews the project’s technical and political processes, focusing on land-use plans and design standards, transportation investments, and market strategies.
The wave of rail transit construction in recent decades has renewed interest in developing transit related land-use patterns in American cities and suburbs. This synthesis describes the public policy and action frameworks that have evolved to support transit-focused development and examines the development that has occurred in station areas in 19 cities and transit agencies.
This report describes transit’s increasingly important role in improving the livability of communities. Concerns about livability affect every community: inner cities, suburbs, small towns, and rural areas. The report explores a “place-making” approach where a local community, working in partnership with a transit agency, plans and implements neighborhood-scale projects and programs that are mutually supportive of community livability and transit ridership goals. Part I of this report describes the place-making approach to livability and explores the relationships between transportation and livability that are keys to understanding the case studies. In Chapter 2, the role of transportation in building communities through transit programs, strategies to “calm” traffic in residential and commercial neighborhoods, and a new understanding of the relationship between transportation and land use is explored. Part II of the report—Chapters 3 through 9—presents examples and…
The Transit Friendly Design Guide flows from the Calgary Transportation Plan 1995 and the Sustainable Suburbs Study. It has been developed with the help of community stakeholders to describe how community design and transit service can be mutually supportive. Application of the principles and policies contained in this guide will create an environment that will help make Calgary Transit’s vision a reality.
An increasingly inﬂuential planning strategy for leveraging rail transit is high-density resident development near rail stations, or ‘Transit-Based Housing.’ Proponents argue such projects will get more people onto transit, reduce developers’ expenses, and lower commuting costs, housing prices, and air pollution in the bargain. While most of the literature has addressed the merit of such projects, this paper considers a separate question: Whatever virtues transit-based housing may have, what are its prospects?
We ﬁnd that transit-based housing faces a much steeper uphill battle than the conventional wisdom suggests. Cities’ parochial ﬁscal and economic interests appear to conﬂict with transit-based housing in several fundamental respects, a view strongly supported by a behavioral analysis of zoning data for all 282 existing and proposed Southern California rail transit stations. Municipalities behave as if they prefer to use rail transit stations for economic…
This document contains a set of guidelines which show how all forms of urban development and redevelopment can be made more accessible by public transit. The guidelines are a distillation of transit-friendly land use planning and urban design practices, drawing from experience in Ontario and from elsewhere in North America and abroad. To make them as effective and practical as possible, the guidelines were reviewed and refined with input from a variety of groups interested in the transit-land use connection: professional urban planners, transit organizations, municipalities, environmentalists, developers and the building industry.
This document is a companion to Metro's Transportation Service Guidelines, which describes the conditions for establishing and evaluating new and existing transportation services, and the Metro Transportation Facility Design Guidelines, which provides information on the standards used by Metro in the design of transit and ridesharing facilities. It provides information for local planning staffs on the effects of land use decisions on public transportation service and provides guidelines for the private sector on how to design new projects to be compatible with public transportation. A short summary of each section and its objectives can be found on pages vii-xi.
Coordination between land use and public transportation should occur at the following levels in the land use planning process: 1) comprehensive plan policies, 2) zoning ordinances, and 3) the environmental review and building/site plan review process. Since funds for public transportation services are…