The Mineta Transportation Institute (MTI) at San José State University assigned a project team to design a planning template for transit-oriented development (TOD) that incorporates an understanding of nonwork travel, that is, trips for shopping, eating out, and engaging in recreational and cultural activities. Nonwork trips are growing in signifigance and now account for four of every five trips. At the same time, TOD has become a popular planning response to the impacts of metropolitan growth.
This report was prepared for policy makers searching for ways to boost public transit use in U.S. urban areas and wishing to know what can be learned from the experiences of Canada and Western Europe. With few exceptions, public transit has a more prominent role in Canada and Western Europe than in the United States. This is true not only in large cities, but also in many smaller communities and throughout entire metropolitan areas. Transit is used for about 10 percent of urban trips in Western Europe, compared with about 2 percent in the United States. Canadians use public transit about twice as much as Americans, although there is considerable variation across Canada, just as there is in Western Europe and the United States.
The paper reports on the implementation of parking cash-out in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Region in 1999 and 2000. Since parking costs in a downtown setting are typically a substantial portion of commuting costs, cashing-out parking subsidies can provide a strong incentive for commuters to choice an alternative to driving alone.
Transit-oriented development (TOD) has become the dominant urban growth planning paradigm in the United States. Yet scant evidence has been proffered to indicate that it will produce significant environmental and social benefits commensurate with the costs of the major transportation system improvements that it requires.
Sixteen distinct planning issues will determine whether TOD significantly changes travel behavior in a metropolitan region. While some analysis exists, understanding of these issues needs improvement. In particular, more research is needed on non-work travel, retail market dynamics, and the likely constraints this $2.3 trillion area of business and human behavior imposes on TOD.
Over the past two decades numerous metropolitan areas in the United States have embraced the concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) in an attempt to control and manage the negative environmental and social impacts of dispersed growth patterns (Porter 1997). TOD, it…
City and county leaders in California are most motivated to push for pedestrian-oriented infrastructure and land uses when there is a clear economic benefit to their communities.2 There are solid connections between walkable environments and economic viability. This brochure highlights some aspects of that nexus.
This Phase II report addresses the connection between transit and streets, recognizing that the design and management of streets and traffic can and does affect the livability of communities. This report presents strategies that are emerging across the United States, where the effective, balanced incorporation of transit into city streets is having a positive impact on livability and quality of life.
This report describes transit’s increasingly important role in improving the livability of communities. Concerns about livability affect every community: inner cities, suburbs, small towns, and rural areas. The report explores a “place-making” approach where a local community, working in partnership with a transit agency, plans and implements neighborhood-scale projects and programs that are mutually supportive of community livability and transit ridership goals. Part I of this report describes the place-making approach to livability and explores the relationships between transportation and livability that are keys to understanding the case studies. In Chapter 2, the role of transportation in building communities through transit programs, strategies to “calm” traffic in residential and commercial neighborhoods, and a new understanding of the relationship between transportation and land use is explored. Part II of the report—Chapters 3 through 9—presents examples and…
The Transit Friendly Design Guide flows from the Calgary Transportation Plan 1995 and the Sustainable Suburbs Study. It has been developed with the help of community stakeholders to describe how community design and transit service can be mutually supportive. Application of the principles and policies contained in this guide will create an environment that will help make Calgary Transit’s vision a reality.
An increasingly inﬂuential planning strategy for leveraging rail transit is high-density resident development near rail stations, or ‘Transit-Based Housing.’ Proponents argue such projects will get more people onto transit, reduce developers’ expenses, and lower commuting costs, housing prices, and air pollution in the bargain. While most of the literature has addressed the merit of such projects, this paper considers a separate question: Whatever virtues transit-based housing may have, what are its prospects?
We ﬁnd that transit-based housing faces a much steeper uphill battle than the conventional wisdom suggests. Cities’ parochial ﬁscal and economic interests appear to conﬂict with transit-based housing in several fundamental respects, a view strongly supported by a behavioral analysis of zoning data for all 282 existing and proposed Southern California rail transit stations. Municipalities behave as if they prefer to use rail transit stations for economic…