This report was prepared for policy makers searching for ways to boost public transit use in U.S. urban areas and wishing to know what can be learned from the experiences of Canada and Western Europe. With few exceptions, public transit has a more prominent role in Canada and Western Europe than in the United States. This is true not only in large cities, but also in many smaller communities and throughout entire metropolitan areas. Transit is used for about 10 percent of urban trips in Western Europe, compared with about 2 percent in the United States. Canadians use public transit about twice as much as Americans, although there is considerable variation across Canada, just as there is in Western Europe and the United States.
Creating Transit Station Communities: A Transit-Oriented Development Workbook has been prepared to help local jurisdictions and transit agencies in the central Puget Sound region achieve transit-oriented land use development. The workbook focuses on the role that high capacity transit stations can play in stimulating and supporting local land use changes. The overall purpose for promoting transit-oriented land use development at transit stations is to increase regionwide transit use and support local growth management objectives. For the purposes of this workbook, high capacity transit stations include light rail and commuter rail stations as well as major bus transit centers and ferry terminals. These transit facilities provide locations that can generally support an intensive mix of residential and commercial development close to the station. Transit-oriented development is usually focused on land within one-quarter mile to one-half mile radius of the station facility —…
This booklet describes the problems the LUTRAQ project sought to address: dispersed land-use patterns that encourage auto use and reliance on new highway capacity to relieve congestion. The second section reviews the project’s technical and political processes, focusing on land-use plans and design standards, transportation investments, and market strategies.
This paper evaluates the influence of residential density on commuting behavior across U.S. cities while controlling for available opportunities, the technology of transportation infrastructure, and individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The measures of metropolitan and local density are addressed separately. We suggest that metropolitan residential density serves principally as a surrogate for city size. We argue that markets react to high interaction costs found in large cities by raising density rather than density being a cause of those high costs. Local residential density measures relative location (accessibility) within the metropolitan region as well as indexing the level of congestion.
TCRP Report 16 presents the results from Project H-1, An Evaluation of the Relationships Between Transit and Urban Form. The research team was under the direction of Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., and included Dr. Robert Cervero, Howard/Stein-Hudson Associates, Inc., and Jeffery Zupan. Six reports were produced by the research team; a decision was made by the project panel to publish four of the six reports as a two-volume set, in the regular TCRP series.
Metropolitan plans are commonly based on a system of suburban office clusters . The large variation among recent plans suggests a poor understanding of their nature and impacts . A taxonomy of office clusters could provide a necessary framework. Six hypotheses on the type, frequency, location, employment base and travel characteristics of suburban clusters were tested in a case-study of the Toronto region. Six physical types were identified and found to be associated with certain locations, employment activities and travel mode characteristics . The Toronto metropolitan plan was found to be successful when it conformed with these findings and unsuccessful when it did not. The results lead to provisional guidelines for future metropolitan plans .