With the uncertainty of future energy supplies and the impacts of global warming, rapid transit is becoming increasingly important as part of the transportation mix in North American cities. The conventional choice for rapid transit alignments are off-street corridors such as rail and highway right-of-ways. More recently, cities are locating rapid transit projects along arterial street right-of-ways, to influence more transit-supportive development rather than low-density, single use environments common throughout North America. Promoting transit alignments that provide the best opportunity for this type of development, known as development-oriented transit, is essential for influencing a change in urban transportation habits and building more resilient cities.
This Recommended Practice introduces guidelines for designing and operating sustainable transit that both reduces a community’s environmental footprint from transportation and enhances its quality of life by making travel more enjoyable, affordable and timely.
Management experts often say that, “you can’t manage what you can’t measure.” What is measured, how it is measured, and how data are presented can affect how problems are evaluated and solutions selected.
For example, a baseball player’s performance can be evaluated based on batting averages, base hits, runs batted in, and ratio of wins to losses, plus various defense statistics that depend on the player’s position. Performance statistics can be calculated per at-bat, per inning, per game, per season, or for a career. A player can be considered outstanding according to one set of statistics but inferior according to another.
This is just one example of how different measurement methods can give very different impressions about a person, group or activity. Often, there is no single method or unit that conveys all the information needed for evaluation. Different measurement units represent different perspectives and assumptions. A coach needs to consider several…
The Hampton Roads Regional Transit Vision Plan (HRRTVP or the “Vision Plan”) looks into the future – 2025 and beyond – to visualize what may be possible for the region’s transit services. It provides a concept for a regional rapid transit network that connects major employment and population centers in Hampton Roads. It envisions thoughtful and coordinated land use planning combined with specific transit modes that improve mobility options for the public. The purpose of HRRTVP is to provide a long-term framework for transit development, not a definite set of approved projects. As the region selects projects for further study, planners, elected officials, and the public will collaborate to define the specific requirements, alignments and transit modes in accordance with local land use planning, alternatives analysis, environmental considerations and available funding.
This thesis analyzes an on-board transit survey conducted by the Atlanta Regional Commission in order to determine how far urban density, mixed land-uses, and street network connectivity are related to different walking behaviors, namely transit walk-mode shares and walking distances to/from stations. The data are drawn from all the stations of Atlanta’s rapid transit network (MARTA).
Allowing for quite a bit of noise in the data, some of the findings confirm for the case of Atlanta what a review of existing literature would lead one to expect: mixed land-use and denser street networks are associated with higher proportion of riders traveling to/from the station “walking” (noise in the data does not allow to fully distinguish with certainty walking as the sole mode of access to/from the station from walking combined with the use of bus services).
The thesis also explores questions that have not been previously covered systematically in the literature. First, does urban…
The Denver regional transit provider, RTD is involved in one of the most ambitious passenger rail expansion projects in the country. Known as FasTracks, the project will add 122 miles of rail and 18 miles of BRT to Metro Denver. Given the scrutiny RTD has faced over budget shortfalls and the likelihood of raising taxes to complete the project on time, this paper used a GIS analysis to determine just how well Metro Denver residents and employees would be served by FasTracks. GIS was also used to determine which corridors and stations would serve the most people, and which high density areas will not be served by FasTracks. Using population data from transportation analysis zones and half mile and one mile buffers around each station, it was found that 30% of residents and 69% of employees within Metro Denver will be within one mile of a FasTracks station, while only 9% of land area falls within a mile of a station. These results indicate that FasTracks will serve residents…
More than $8 billion of new development has occurred in light rail station areas. A study of MAX Blue Line light rail station areas found that development occurring after light rail investment has an average development density or Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of 0.65 more than the average FAR for development outside of station areas. This means that for every 1,000 square feet of land area developed, station area taxlots realized an additional 650 square feet of building area. The rate of development within Blue Line station areas was 69 percent higher than elsewhere within a one-mile corridor extending along the light rail alignment. Low and moderate value lots within Blue Line station areas redeveloped at twice the redevelopment rate reported for low value lots outside of station areas.
Even as transit has become an amenity with value to a growing market segment, we continue to be mindful of the critical assistance transit can provide low income households. Through its joint…
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) uses different combinations of techniques to improve service, such as bus-only lanes and roads, pre-boarding fare collection, transit priority at traffic signals, stylish vehicles with extra doors, bus stops that are more like light rail stations, and high frequency service. This study examines five approaches to BRT systems as implemented by public transit agencies in California, Oregon, and Ontario.
The concept of accessibility has long been theorized as a principal determinant of residential choice behavior. Research on this influence is extensive but the empirical results have been mixed, with some research suggesting that accessibility is becoming a relatively insignificant influence on housing choices. Further, the measurement of accessibility must contend with complications arising from the increasing prevalence of trip chains, nonwork activities, and multiworker households, and also reconcile person-specific travel needs with household residential decisions. With this paper we contribute to the literature by addressing the gap framed by these issues and present a novel residential choice model with three main elements of innovation. First, we operationalize a time – space prism (TSP) accessibility measure, which we believe to be the first application of its kind in a residential choice model. Second, we represent the choice sets in a building-level…
Network concepts have received a great deal of attention in spatial economics in recent decades. Examples are the well-known ideas of the network economy (Shapiro and Varian 1999) and the knowledge economy (Cooke 2001). Networks are based on the existence of interactions (which may occur on multiple levels) between agents operating in a network, giving rise to synergistic effects. The effects of these interactions are oĕen investigated and modeled by considering, amongst other things, network externalities or spillover effects (Yilmaz et al. 2002). The labor market literature is no exception to this trend: spatial job matching processes have been widely studied in a social network framework (Montgomery 1991), while work-induced mobility (commuting) has been investigated in both an urban and a regional network context (e.g. Russo etal. 2007; ăorsen etal. 1999; Van Nuffel and Saey 2005).
The directionality of commuting Ĕows has clear implications for urban form and for…