This paper has several purposes. First, it seeks to further the argument that TOD job centers are a viable and important means to combat and reverse job sprawl. Doing so will require advancing a more comprehensive definition of TOD that considers both where people live and where people work. Second, it will look at best practices (both plans and policies) to implement TOD job centers. Because of the scope of the problem (i.e. job sprawl is occurring at a regional and even megaregional level), the most effective solutions likely require regional intervention. However, the policies available to implement these plans are at a different scale (either at a local level or the state/federal government). Therefore, the most effective plans and policies will have to address this discrepancy and identify creative ways to entice or require local jurisdictions to make land use decisions that benefit regions. Finally, suggestions will be made for how the Bay Area can regionally address job sprawl…
The purpose of this synthesis was to document the state of the practice for transit agencies in terms of development, deployment, and sustainability of downtown circulator systems. It was accomplished through a literature review, transportation/transit agency survey, and case studies. Seven case studies across a geographic range of locations offer additional details on innovative and successful practices, as well as other related issues. These circulator locations include downtowns in Baltimore, Maryland; Hartford, Connecticut; Louisville, Kentucky; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Washington, D.C.; Los Angeles, California; and Austin, Texas.
The states of California, New Jersey, and Western Australia encourage smart growth through the employment of transit-oriented development (TOD). This article documents each state’s approach and highlights the importance of interagency cooperation at the state-level and intergovernmental cooperation between state and local governments. This article discusses the importance of state government participation in the planning and creation of policy to facilitate TOD and recommends elements for a model state TOD program.
This research first seeks to gain an understanding of TOD attributes that encourage economic development at HSR station areas, with a focus on mid-sized cities located between two or more large metropolitan areas. Then, this research aims to apply the information gathered to two midsized California cities with planned HSR stations – Fresno and Bakersfield – by assessing how effectively those cities are planning for TOD in areas around their planned HSR stations. Finally, this research aims to produce a set of recommendations for policymakers in Fresno and Bakersfield to assist them in planning for TOD around HSR stations that maximizes economic development.
Some of today’s most vexing problems, including sprawl, congestion, oil dependence, and climate change, are prompting states and localities to turn to land planning and urban design to rein in automobile use. Many have concluded that roads cannot be built fast enough to keep up with rising travel demand induced by the road building itself and the sprawl it spawns. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to summarize empirical results on associations between the built environment and travel, especially nonwork travel.
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) projects depend on good urban design to coordinate transportation types, mix land uses, and create an appealing public space, all in a limited area. Scholarly attention, however, has been largely focused on the public policy aspects of TOD development such as planning strategies and ënancing options. Less attention has been paid to ënding ways to overcome some of the inherent di.culties of TOD project planning, such as balancing di.erent types of transportation modes. If TOD projects are to be successful and meet the goals of policy makers, transportationengineers, planners, andthe general public, greater understanding of the successes and failures of TODs in terms of their urban design practices is needed. .is paper analyzes urban design outcomes in seven American TOD projects to draw out “good practices” in urban design, focusing on development processes, place-making, and facilities. .e seven projects o.er valuable lessons…
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is a particular category of smart growth and New Urbanism. In the U.S., over 90% of TOD projects are rail TOD (RTOD) projects. In contrast, bus TOD (BTOD) is a minor player, and is therefore lightly researched.
The purpose of this report is to provide examples of BRT-based TOD as a resource for policymakers, public agencies, and the development community. The report uses a case-based research methodology, examining four developed country cities characterized by high private car usage and significant TOD around their BRT corridors.
Transit planning in the United States has tended toward viewing BRT as an analogue to light rail transit, with similar operating patterns. This model, referred to as “Light Rail Lite,” is compared to international best practices, which have often favored the development of a grade-separated bus infrastructure (“Quickways”) that in turn supports a varied mix of all-stops, express, and branching services. This model, dubbed the Quickway model, evolved out of the practical necessity of cities to meet ambitious ridership or mode split targets. The two models are contrasted along the key dimensions of BRT service, and significant differences are identified. Three international case studies—Ottawa, Bogotá, and Brisbane—are reviewed for their particular application of this model and of the results they have obtained. Four domestic cities are compared to these international examples: Eugene, Oregon, and Los Angeles are profiled for their adoption of the Light Rail Lite model, and…